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Bio-Medical Waste Management: A Guide for Healthcare Facilities

Any waste generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of humans or animals, or in related research activities, or in the manufacturing or testing of biologicals, is referred to as bio-medical waste and includes the categories listed in Schedule. Waste is produced by all human activity. We are all aware that such waste can be hazardous and requires proper disposal. Water, soil, and air are polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and agricultural waste. It can also be harmful to people and the environment.

What Is Bio-Medical Waste Management?

Bio-medical waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of humans or animals, as well as during related research and the manufacturing or testing of biologicals. Human anatomical waste, animal waste, microbiology & biotechnology waste, waste sharps, abandoned pharmaceuticals & cytotoxic drugs, soiled garbage, solid waste, liquid waste, incinerator ash, and chemical wastes are all included in this category. 

Bio-medical waste management includes the process of treating this waste so as to provide a safe and effective environment to ensure that harmful chemicals or gases are not released into the environment. 

Types of Bio-Medical Waste

 Bio-medical waste is categorized into three types: 1. Inorganic Waste: includes dirt and sand, dried food, or other materials such as organics, dead animals, tissues, pet dander, and small biological samples. 

  1. Chemical Waste: includes wastewater or dirty labware. The wastewater, referred to as syringe or liquid, undergoes secondary contact with acids or acids.

Biologicals are produced in a non-toxic and safe manner. They are beneficial for humans and animals, some bacteria, pathogens, spores, and viruses can pose hazards to human health. Bio-medical waste must be segregated at the time of treatment and disposal in the treatment process. These wastes are not suitable for any other activities and must be disposed of properly and on time. Bio-medical waste generation is very high in the medical and pharmaceutical sector, therefore, most of the medical, pharmaceutical, and biotech facilities are contributing to bio-medical waste generation. This has resulted in an increase in the overall waste generation in the medical sector. According to WHO estimates, around 4.2 to 10.

Bio-Medical Waste Regulations

After being introduced by the Central Pollution Control Board, bio-medical waste has gained wide popularity in India. Several states across India have adopted waste disposal and management measures. Although we are yet to get a very detailed regulatory framework. we can at least take a leaf out of the bio-medical waste management guidelines that are already in place. Here we discuss some important points about bio-medical waste management for healthcare facilities in India. Importance of Biosafety Level Bio-medical waste is classified into four levels of classification. At Level 2, it is called biosafety waste. It is the most basic level and waste needs to be segregated from the blood used in transfusions and dialysis.

The Dangers of Bio-Medical Waste

According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), bio-medical waste is among the top-ranked pathogens, responsible for some of the most deadly diseases in the United States. Today, medical waste is no longer a minor problem. It has emerged as a major issue that demands effective measures to cope with it. Moreover, bio-medical waste management is especially critical to the healthcare industry because of its importance in the healthcare sector and the need to maintain medical standards. Medical Waste in Hospitals Although medical waste is produced in all sectors of the healthcare industry, it is defined as the waste generated by hospitals and other healthcare facilities such as laboratories, clinics, pharmacies, and pharmacy cabinets.

How To Manage Bio-Medical Waste

There are several types of bio-medical waste, some of which can be safely and effectively used for agrochemicals while others should be avoided due to contamination. There are certain guidelines that can be followed to ensure that the bio-medical waste produced from treatment and research are managed effectively. Reducing The Volume Of Bio-Medical Waste A small amount of bio-medical waste is generally acceptable. 

Types of Biomedical Waste Disposal

  • Autoclaving. Steam sterilisation is used in the autoclaving process.
  • Incineration. The main advantages of incineration are its speed, ease, and simplicity.
  • Chemicals. When it comes to liquid waste, chemical disinfection is a typical biomedical waste management procedure.
  • Microwaving.

However, this small amount is highly dangerous for your body because it contains toxins and heavy metals. The quantity of bio-medical waste can be reduced by replacing the same amount of water with ice water. The same number of steps with fewer and less frequent ones. Most bio-medical waste contains both organic and inorganic materials, and the combination is highly toxic.


In order to avoid the discharge of waste into the environment, the hospital and the allied healthcare services need to remain committed to waste management and dispose of the waste at the source. Similarly, The states are responsible for waste management by reviewing the source, control, and capacity.

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